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Sanctions & The Regulation of IP Transfers

The early stages of internet development operated in a culture of independence from outside influence. In fact, as though to commemorate the spirit of the times, in 1996, John Perry Barlow wrote "A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace." In it, he told governments they "have no sovereignty where we gather." He went on to state, "Ours is a world that is both everywhere and nowhere, but it is not where bodies live." more

Minding Your IP Address Reputation

Network operators rely on guidance from IP address experts because not all IP addresses used on the Internet are the same. The "reputation" of email senders is especially important because some are malicious users of the system. But identifying "senders" based on their email addresses or the individual IP address of a user presents issues that are unnecessarily complex. more

The IPv4 Market in 2021

Price was the story of the 2021 IPv4 market. Large and small organizations alike continue to invest in their IPv4 infrastructure causing demand for IPv4 address space to intensify. Meanwhile, supply remains constrained. These market factors drove prices up at a historic rate in 2021. more

Another Year of the Transition to IPv6

I bet that nobody believed in 1992 that thirty years later, we'd still be discussing the state of the transition to IPv6! In 1992 we were discussing what to do about the forthcoming address crunch in IPv4, and having come to terms with the inevitable prospect that the silicon industry was going to outpace the capacity of the IPv4 address pool in a couple of years, we needed to do something quickly more

The Changing Role of IP Addresses in the Architectural Evolution of the Internet

I work at APNIC, the Regional Internet Registry that serves the Asia Pacific Region. APNIC provides common infrastructure services for the region that support the unique assignment of IP address blocks to Internet network operators within our region through the operation of an address registry. In short, IP addresses are what we do. So, when there are discussions in technology circles about evolving the Internet's address model in varying ways,... more

The Formation of IPv4 Address Markets

Something odd happened through 2021 in the market for IPv4 addresses. Across 2021 the reported market price for the transfer of IPv4 addresses has doubled, from approximately USD $27 per IPv4 individual address at the end of 2020 to around USD $55 per address in December 2021. It has taken seven years for the market price to rise from just under USD $10 to get to USD $20 per address. The next year, 2020, saw the price rise a further USD $7 per address, and then in the next 12 months, the market price doubled. more

Notes from NANOG 83

The network operations community is cautiously heading back into a mode of in-person meetings, and the NANOG meeting at the start of November was a hybrid affair with a mix of in-person and virtual participation, both by the presenters and the attendees. I was one of the virtual mob, and these are my notes from the presentations I found to be of personal interest. I hope you might also find them to be of interest as well... The year 2021 has not been a good year for Internet outages. more

The Irrationality of Deploying IPv6

For the past few decades, there's been a relatively straightforward narrative on the economics behind the IPv6 transition that goes something like this: sooner or later, IPv4 scarcity will drive costs up until they exceed those of deploying IPv6. A competitive market will then make the rational choice and transition to a more efficient mode of production and deploy IPv6. This is textbook economics, and - with the disclaimer that I'm not a trained economist - it appears to be incorrect. more

An IPv6 Update for 2020

The Australian Domain Name Administration, AUDA, recently published its quarterly report for the last quarter of 2020. The report contained the interesting snippet: "The rapid digitization of our lives and economy -- necessitated by COVID-19 -- continued to underpin strong growth in .au registrations. New .au domains created in December 2020 were up 23 percent from December 2019, while total domains under management were up more than 2.1 percent over the same period." more

A Look Back at the World of IP Addressing in 2020: What Changed and What It Means

Time for another annual roundup from the world of IP addresses. Let's see what has changed in the past 12 months in addressing the Internet and look at how IP address allocation information can inform us of the changing nature of the network itself. Back around 1992, the IETF gazed into their crystal ball and tried to understand how the Internet was going to evolve and what demands would be placed on the addressing system as part of the "IP Next Generation" study.  more

Are Big Tech CFOs (Inadvertently) Stealing From Shareholders?

When valuing a stock, analysts and shareholders evaluate always revenue and profit. Big tech COFs are sitting on assets worth tens of millions of dollars of annual profit (not just revenue, but true profit) in the form of unallocated IPv4 addresses. By not selling or leasing these out, they are incurring expenses to hold them and missing out on tremendous profits. At a 20X multiple (for context, Cisco is trading at nearly 18X earnings, Google at just over 33X earnings, Shopify at well over 700X earnings), big tech CFOs are actively preventing over $250 billion in market capitalization for their shareholders. more

An Open Letter to Big Tech CFOs: Save the Internet Before You’re Forced

Dear Chief Financial Officers of tech giants, the internet is in crisis, and you can lead your organization to help solve the problem. You'll be well compensated, and you'll enjoy massive public relations benefits. I fear that if you don't, global governments will force your hand. There is a shortage of available IPv4 addresses but we are years away (possibly a decade or more) from IPv6 viability and adoption in North America. more

The Next Green Initiative is Internet Sustainability

We are all aware of the pollution caused by burning coal and combusting oil. The results are obvious: exhaust spewing from vehicles, factories, and power plants. Many of us don't realize we are actively contributing to the unnecessary burning of energy (natural gas and coal in the US) to power the Internet. We wag our fingers at Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and data centers, but the fact is that our own organizations are wasting electricity every single hour out of ignorance or apathy. more

First RIPE NCC “Seizure of IPv4 Addresses” – Is This the Beginning of IPv4 as Collateral?

In a publication released on October 2, 2020, RIPE NCC reported its first seizure of IPv4 registration rights pursuant to a Dutch court order. Pursuant to the order, RIPE NCC effectuated a transfer of the IP Addresses from the liquidating debtor to its creditor. Although these IP Addresses could not be owned, they were apparently not legacy. Thus, they conferred no "property rights" - the registration rights were deemed an enforceable right that has value and were to be utilized towards satisfaction of a judgment. more

IPv4 Market and IPv6 Deployment

IPv4.Global's Lee Howard will be a panelist at the Internet Governance Forum's session, "IGF 2020 WS #327 Believe it or not, the Internet Protocol is on Sale!" Preparing for this session has provided an opportunity to research how the IPv4 address market has affected the deployment of IPv6. There are a few spikes where a large number of addresses was transferred in a single transaction, most recently from APIDT.org. more

News Briefs

Pentagon Gave Control of 175M Dormant IP Addresses to Florida Company Right Before Trump’s Departure

We Have Now Run Out of IPv4 Addresses, Says RIPE NCC

Close to 735K Fraudulently Obtained IP Addresses Have Been Uncovered and Revoked, ARIN Reveals

Researchers Develop Tools to Help Map the IPv6 Address Landscape

Easy Access to ICANN, IP Address Data Beats Info on Encrypted Data, Says Telstra Cybersecurity Head

Microsoft Cancels Plans to Move Its Internal Wireless Network to IPv6-Only

Moving to IPv6 Is Becoming a Matter of Business Continuity, Says NASA Transition Manager

Russia Wipes Out Over 17 Million IP Addresses In Efforts to Block Telegram

APNIC Labs Partners with Cloudflare for Joint DNS Research Project

Close to 20% VPN Providers Reported Leaking Customer IP Addresses via WebRTC Bug

Researchers Find One-Third of IPv4 Address Space Under Some Type of DoS Attack

RIPE NCC to Hold Sixth IPv6 Focused Hackathon

Verizon to Stop Issuing New Public IPv4 Addresses

European Court Declares Dynamic IP Addresses are Subject to Privacy Protection Rules

IP Address Information Misused by Authorities Says EFF, Not Enough to Justify Police Raids

North American Saw Complete Exhaustion of IPv4 Address Space Inventory in Q3, 2015

Global Re-Distribution of IPv4 Addresses Requires Greater Trading Transparency and Security

ARIN Issues Final IPv4 Addresses in Its Free Pool

A Look Inside the Emerging Private IPv4 Market

IPv4 Market Heats Up While Supply Dwindles

Most Viewed

Most Commented

IPv6: Extinction, Evolution or Revolution?

Whither DNS?

DNSSEC: Once More, With Feeling!

Comments on an IP Address Trading Market

Removing Need at RIPE

IPXO Updates – Sponsor

IPv4 Leasing Price: IPXO Introduces the Industry’s First Statistics Hub

Responding to the market's demand to understand the commercials of the IP leasing market better, IPXO has launched its Statistics Hub, unveiling the latest details and trends as they appear on the IPXO Marketplace. more

Meet the Speakers of the Cyber Threat Mitigation Webinar (by IPXO)

On the 14th of April, IPXO, the world's leading IP monetization and leasing platform will be holding a webinar on Cyber Threat Mitigation. Thought leaders from CUJO AI, Deft, Voxility and IPXO, will be sharing their insights from their experiences in observing and analyzing the Internet's landscape. more

Limited IP Resources Leave Smaller ISPs Vulnerable to Judgement Errors When Making Tough Cybersecurity Calls

An increasing number of cyberattacks on internet users is causing more and more internet blackouts as smaller Internet Providers struggle with tough choices and limited resources. Gustavas Davidavicius, Abuse Prevention Team Lead at IPXO, shares insights on the role of human errors in ISP-related cybersecurity failures and other measures that can be taken to reduce the incidence and impact of cyber-attacks globally. more

Dormant IPv4 Addresses Can Help Mitigate Expected Network Outages

Last year, internet users experienced multiple network outages due to increased reliance on the online space. Connectivity problems are predicted to continue throughout 2022; however, employing currently dormant IP resources could help mitigate the problem. more

To Accelerate 5G Adoption, European Telcos Need More IP Addresses

European telecommunication service providers are being pushed to pick up the pace regarding 5G adoption. However, the next-gen technology requires immense data capacity and transmission speeds, thus setting up the new infrastructure is no easy task for telcos. more

With Rising Number of Cyberattacks, Businesses Have to Know How to Handle IP Address Abuse

Cyberattacks have always been a serious headache for businesses and the last several months were no exception. If not handled in time, the attacks can lead to IP reputation loss and blocklisting, causing severe and expensive damage to companies, but a few precautionary steps can help keep the threats at bay. more

Afrinic’s IP Address Crisis Raises Red Flags for Entire African Internet’s Sustainability

The recent IP address crisis involving Africa’s regional internet registry (Afrinic) and Cloud Innovation has shaken up the internet industry, also raising the long-standing question if RIR’s IP asset governance policies are sustainable for long-term network growth. more

Industry Updates

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